AFPD , Environmental Quality, 20 July AFPD , Safety Programs, 28 September AFPD , Occupational Safety and. This Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) establishes Air Force directed energy Investigate mishaps involving DEW IAW AFPD , Safety. 1 April ; AFOSHSTD , 1 March ; AFOSHSTD , 1 May This instruction implements Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) , Safety.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Air Force, th Human Performance Wing, Human Effectiveness Division, USA Abstract In this paper, we distill the most significant current systems engineering challenges acpd examining acquisition oversight reports, aircraft mishap investigations, and current systems engineering literature. We then discuss how to better meet those challenges in light wfpd the domains of human systems integration; specifically, manpower, personnel, training, human factors, health, safety, habitability, survivability, and environment.

The findings in this paper indicate that the system engineering technical processes are fundamentally sound, but that the application of those processes is frequently inconsistent and ineffective.

Causes for this include a need for sound systems engineering earlier in system development, more quantitative methods and tools to support the application of technical processes, and more effective management of interfaces. This is observed in both the commercial and government sectors, and the consequences have proven to be very costly and dangerous. The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force or the U.

This work was sponsored by the th Human Performance Wing. Key words – Human system integration, systems engineering technical processes 1 Introduction This guidance reflects the increased focus on work that occurs prior to official In this paper we study acquisition oversight reports, aircraft program initiation at Milestone B [4]. This research focuses on the SE the first source of input for systems engineering technical technical processes for design as defined in U.

It begins with a structured mission Department of Defense DoD policy; however, the DoD analysis to determine how to fill identified capability gaps has co-evolved their SE processes with the global systems for the military.

If the solution to a particular capability gap engineering community. The ISO defines the six stages of a system lifecycle as: Support processes for integrating human considerations within and includes functions such as maintenance, sustainment, and across all system elements; an essential enabler to systems training. Systems engineers have resources. HSI is concerned DoD direction on manpower estimates for major defense with providing methods and tools that support the SE acquisition programs is extensive, but there is a lack of community by ensuring humans are considered throughout tools to enable implementation.

To date, there is no universal agreement as to the of the personnel required before approving any new system. Also, a final manpower estimate is communities have recently added domains that have not part of the full-rate production decision review.

Program been fully embraced by the rest [7]. Figure 2 presents the managers must coordinate with the manpower community, nine domains of HSI using the nomenclature of the DoD. Systems engineers do not replace the distinct communities of each domain, but they must effectively interact with 2. This is a growing segment of SE literature, but studies reveal that many projects still fall short of The personnel domain determines the knowledge, skills, effectively integrating humans in the systems engineering and abilities and the physical, cognitive and sensory processes [].

The personnel community defines these parameters for the system and determines how zfpd best obtain and maintain an The sections that follow discuss the HSI domains more adequate pool of qualified persons. Army calls it completely. Though there is no universally accepted set of personal capabilities and it is related to human resources in definitions, there is much in common among the definitions civilian organizations.

The key components have been extracted. These are written in terms that enable a afpr engineer to apfd system requirements by domain 912- to 2. While these are The training domain determines the necessary infrastructure original, they draw heavily from the definitions put forth by and system components to provide system personnel with INCOSE, and the Human Effectiveness Directorate of the the requisite attributes for optimal system performance.


This includes individual and unit training programs, training systems, and retraining schedules. Issues within the manpower, personnel, and training domains are often inexplicably connected. This requires tradeoff analysis to be done with regard to the effects on all three. For example, there is a avpd deal of pressure on program managers to get early and accurate data regarding manpower requirements; however, manpower estimates for a system under development are interrelated with the methods and decisions of the personnel, training and human factors domains.

This means the manpower analysis must be connected to many tangential documents in the system development process. Currently, those manpower estimates are based on heuristic comparisons with legacy systems.

New technologies may cause these legacy-based estimates to be highly flawed. The issues of this attack or fratricide, as well as minimizing system damage domain are often divided into the following categories: Cognitive— response times, level of autonomy, cognitive 2.

Sources of health hazards include: These characteristics uniquely include: The methods and tools of this domain climate control, space layout, and support services. This is a term related to the human factors medium for operation. Consideration is made to protect the domain, but used in the DoD to describe the application of environment from system manufacturing, operations, anthropomorphic and physiological data for system design.

Human Engineering Design Guidelines [21]. For example, the 2. Foot controls should be used only The systems engineering community addresses the for coarse adjustments and should not be used to adjust a challenges of systems development through prescribed visual display. Hand or arm-operated controls are desirable processes.

These processes should be followed throughout for fine adjustment, but the more precision required, the the system lifecycle and across all domains. A process is a less arm movement should be involved [22]. These sequence of activities performed for a given purpose [24]. It requirements are based on valid human subjects research delineates what needs to be done, but generally does not and have the potential for a valuable contribution to SE if dictate how to do it.

Various communities have established they can be better incorporation into methods and tools. Safety studies affect system design by advocating Beginning in the early s, the DoD acquisition features that eliminate hazards when possible and manage community was reformed and military standards MIL- them when they cannot be avoided. Such features include STDs were eliminated.

Motivated by this, the Government sub-systems for: This standard is a high- certain latent conditions in the systems that are in place to level look at the processes that should be standardized prevent such accidents [23]. The analysis performed by industry-wide. By intent, this standard must be supported accident investigation boards in legacy systems can reveal by methods and tools developed for specific organizational valuable insight into the design of the next generation of application.

The GEIA concept for the iterative relationship systems. The technical processes for system design known as top-down design consist of requirements development, logical analysis, and design solution.

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The technical processes for product realization known as bottom-up realization consist of implementation, integration, verification, validation, and transition [28]. This is consistent with the EIA standard [25]. A visual representation of the DAU concept of the interaction between these processes is given in Figure 4.

It illustrates the iterative relationship among SE technical processes. This iterative flow is intended to be applied at all levels of the system development so that the systems engineer can define the boundary of the problem and the top-level requirements and then decompose to sufficient detail for defining feasible solutions.

If the technical processes for afdp design are executed with tools and methods that facilitate quantitative analysis, then the technical processes for product realization can be performed quantitatively as well.


Thus, our research efforts have focused on the technical processes for system design. The following paragraphs summarize the analysis performed in each process. The purpose of the requirements development process is to Organizations that represent the practitioners have largely define the boundary of the problem and the top-level accepted these efforts of standardization.

IEEE has adopted requirements to be satisfied. In addition, they projected mission, context, and technology readiness is have created IEEE to standardize the application of evaluated. Stakeholder inputs are used to define the needs systems engineering processes. These organizations are very active in developing and ratifying global SE standards. ISO has just updated and released ISO 91–2 of the technical requirements and their inter- They are also working towards a more formal relationships. In this process, top-level requirements and interface management that is fully part of configuration constraints are decomposed and functions are allocated to management [2].

This creates derived technical requirements and necessary component interfaces. The Within the DoD, there is active work to update AFI process will enable the completion of system development Life Cycle Systems Engineering to be consistent with in a logical manner [24]. They identify 16 systems engineering processes divided into eight technical processes and eight technical management processes.

Program managers The purpose of the design solution process is to translate continue to need actionable data earlier afpf the acquisition the outputs of the requirements 91-22 and logical process. Air Force HSI Office study has determined analysis process into feasible alternative solutions and to that timelines will continue to be compressed and decisions apd final design decisions.

This will result in a physical that lock in the design will increasingly need to be made design of all system components capable of performing the before production has begun [17]. These design afpdd must be objective and traceable [24]. They concluded that insufficient SE is applied early in the program lifecycle; thus hindering Systems engineering has generally been accepted as a initial requirements and architecture generation.

They also necessary part of acquisition, but many studies have found concluded that the tools and methods in use are inadequate evidence of problems with the execution of systems to execute the SE processes [34]. Sage and Rouse, in their very comprehensive Handbook of Systems In summary, there has been a plethora of studies Engineering and Management, conclude that SE processes investigating the causal factors of programmatic failures. Their 91–2 application of SE processes. Of the most critical, they list: Designers fail to design the system for effective user interaction when they forget that users will not see the system as they do.

Users 3 A need for more effective management of interfaces will only see what is visible acpd represented in the user interfaces [6]. This conclusions regarding deficiencies of systems engineering reality has led to a new DoDI The requires comprehensive management strategies for HSI to consequences of these deficiencies in execution have been assure effective human performance, reduce MPT costly and time consuming.

Government requirements, and comply af;d all of the constraints for Accountability Office GAO report found that major human operation [4]. Of the identified as part of each milestone [27]. Recent DoD assessments the understanding that demands on operators are increasing indicate that the reason these problems are afpdd being and changing in form. Studies by the Air Force HSI Office discovered early is that insufficient SE is applied early, show that modern operators, with ubiquitous computer requirements are not well managed, and SE tools are automation and augmentation, are actually experiencing inadequate [10].

Though this seems counter-intuitive, it shows that the increase in complexity, of mission and The committees reviewing new standards for the ISO have machine, is growing faster than technological also stated that there is a afld for improved tools for improvements can alleviate.

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