Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a group of disorders characterized by congenital limb contractures. It manifests as limitation of movement of multiple . Amyoplasia is a condition characterized by a generalized lack in the newborn of muscular It is the most common form of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita ( AMC), where multiple joint contractures are present at birth. Arthrogryposis is. “Amyoplasia Congenita.” Syndromes: Rapid Recognition and Perioperative Implications Bissonnette B, Luginbuehl I, Marciniak B, Dalens BJ. Bissonnette B.

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Amyoplasia The most common form of arthrogryposis is amyoplasia, which accounts for approximately one-third of all cases [ 1 ]. Upper extremity contractures usually consist of.

Additionally, due to the lack of fetal movement, the tendons that connect the muscles to bone are not able to stretch to their normal length and this contributes to the lack of joint mobility as well. Sixty-eight cases were identified, and the birth prevalence was found to be 1 in live births [ 29 ]. For many types, the cause is not fully understood. Journal List J Child Orthop v. A new form of congenital ccongenita sensory neuropathy associated with mayoplasia multiplex.

AMC: amyoplasia and distal arthrogryposis

Amyiplasia contracture is a condition in which a joint becomes permanently fixed in a bent flexed or straightened extended position, completely or partially restricting the movement of the affected joint. Abnormalities in the neuromuscular system congeniha found in all cases, with the primary alterations in anterior horn cells, roots, peripheral nerves, motor end-plates, or muscles.

Amyoplasia, the most common form of AMC, occurs randomly sporadically. Different gene mutations were found in the same clinical syndrome, suggesting multiple gene background. It is the most common form of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita AMCwhere multiple joint contractures are present congeniya birth.

Ongoing controversies regarding etiology, diagnosis, treatment Ongoing research relates to seeking an underlying cause for amyoplasia and future replacement of muscle tissue through stem cell work for the production of more muscle mass as a treatment option.

AMC: amyoplasia and distal arthrogryposis

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. An approach to clinical evaluation that has been found to be useful has been suggested and further developed by Hall [ 1 ]. These findings indicate that DA syndromes are caused by myopathies with onset during fetal development, but few studies have involved analysis of muscle tissue in these diseases.


Although in most reports, the distal joints i. Amyoplasia is the most common form of AMC. The common pathogenesis is impaired fetal movements.

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A normal neurologic examination is suggestive of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita or amyoplasia. Sign in via OpenAthens.

Disease definition Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita AMC is a group of disorders characterized by congenital limb contractures. What are the adverse effects associated with each treatment option? Evaluate respiratory function clinical, chest radiographs, pulmonary function tests if possible, arterial blood gases analysis, CT scans.

Tracheal intubation may be difficult and may require adapted anesthetic management. Metabolic disease such as phosphofructokinase deficiency can cause arthrogryposis, and drugs taken during pregnancy can also be associated with arthrogryposis e. In some cases, the mother’s uterus does not allow for adequate fetal movement because of a lack of amniotic fluidknown as oligohydramniosor an abnormal shape to the uterus, called a bicornuate uterus. Bruno Bissonnette, et al.

Radiographic imaging studies are important to distinguish joint dislocations, in particular dislocation of the hips. A defective function of contractile muscle proteins during fetal life influencing fetal mobility seems to be the common cause of congenital joint contractures in these syndromes [ 1819 ]. Diagnosis A diagnosis of AMC is made based upon identification of characteristic symptoms e. Passive mobilization of joints is the early treatment Removable splints combined with vigorous therapy are the most effective conservative treatment However, surgical release of the affected joints is often necessary Clubfoot associated with arthrogryposis is very stiff and nearly always requires surgical correction Knee surgery, including capsulotomy, osteotomy, and tendon lengthening, is used to correct deformities.

Common features involve the head and neck low-set ears, ptosis, limited eye movements laterally and upward, abnormal retinal pigmentation, flattened nose, round facies, frontal midline capillary hemangioma, micrognathia, cleft palateskeleton scoliosis, dislocated hips, internally rotated and adducted shoulders, fixed extended elbows, wrist deformities consisting of flexion and ulnar deviation, talipes varus, syndactyly, camptodactyly, amputation of digitsgastrointestinal tract gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, gastric ulcersand chest hypoplastic lungs, diaphragmatic hernia, hydrothorax.


Failure to identify antenatal multiple congenital contractures and fetal akinesia—proposal of guidelines to improve diagnosis. The joints of the legs and arms are usually affected, the legs are affected more often than the arms.

A biopsy is a procedure in which a small amount of affected tissue e. After birth, consultation with pediatricians, neurologists, and geneticists is essential for a specific diagnosis. In amyoplasia, muscle function is more important than severity of joint contractures for the prediction of walking ability and functional level.

The joint contractures can also be more resistant to treatment in certain types of AMC, especially amyoplasia [ 31 ], and surgery and splinting may need to be planned accordingly. Surgery may be necessary to address the congenital deformities frequently occurring in conjunction with arthrogryposis.

Joints are fusiform and the joint capsules are decreased in volume due to lack of movement during fetal development. Intelligence may or may not be affected.

Amyoplasia is a disorder characterized by multiple contractures of the joints. Embryonic myosin heavy-chain mutations cause distal arthrogryposis and developmental myosin myopathy that persists postnatally.

Further, a mutation in fetal myosin heavy chain MYH8 has been described in DA7, trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome [ amtoplasia ].

A revised and extended classification of the distal arthrogryposes. Passive motion therapy for infants with arthrogryposis. Myopathic form conbenita which joint deformities result from lack of movements in utero.

Long-term follow-up from birth until skeletal maturity. A lack of joint development or the abnormal fusion of bones synostosis that are normally separate have also been associated with multiple congenital contractures. Careful intraoperative positioning is mandatory and can be challenging amyopalsia to limited joint mobility.

According to this, patients can be divided into three main groups of disorders:

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