API Spec 12J. Specification for Oil and Gas Separators, Eighth Edition. standard by American Petroleum Institute, 10/01/ View all product details. Find the most up-to-date version of API SPEC 12J at Engineering Organization: API. Publication Date: 1 October Status: active. Page Count: The API 12J  recommends ranges of KS –values for vertical and horizontal gas -liquid separators. Per API 12J, “the maximum allowable superficial velocity, calculated form the above factors, is .. October, 8. PF
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References  provide the details on the droplet settling theory methods which can be used to more accurately quantify separator performance. Sizing of three-phase gas-liquid hydrocarbon-liquid water separators are more complicated and will be discussed in another TOTM.
The volume of spherical droplet, V Dis calculated by. The two curves for micron droplet size in Figure 2 were divided into 4 and 2 segments based on pressure range for the lower and upper curves, respectively.
Pressure vessels covered by this specification are normally classified as natural resource vessels. This rate should allow all liquid droplets larger than 10 microns to settle out of the gas. Apu pads are the most common type of mist extractors used in vertical separator applications. One can also use the appropriate value of K S to size the mist extractor in the vessel.
There are several sources that one can look up the K S —values for different applications. These parameters are approximate only. For practical applications, the first term on the right hand side spi replaced by K S.
In this TOTM, we will focus on the application of Souders-Brown approach in gas-liquid separators and present diagram, simple correlations and tables to 20088 the Souders-Brown equation constant, K S the so called sizing parameter.
API Spec 12J : 2008
Each segment was fitted to a linear equation in the form of Equation 7 and its regressed coefficients e and f are presented in Tables 3A and 3B for FPS and SI units, respectively.
The last row of Table 2 provides the average absolute percent deviation AAPD of the predicted K S by the proposed correlation from the corresponding values of Figure 2 values. Equation 2 is called Souders-Brown  equation and K S is referred to as the design or sizing parameter.
The drag force, F Dis exerted by flow of gas and gravity force, F Gis exerted by weight of droplet. In the case of demisting cyclones, the vendor should be consulted in regards to performance for the current operations of interest. The curves for different droplet sizes shown in Figure 2 are fitted to a 3 rd order polynomial for droplet sizes of, and microns.
This 21j typically characterized by a K S —value, as shown in Equation 2. In a future TOTM we will discuss the droplet settling theory methods which can be used to more accurately quantify separator performance.
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Specification for Oil and Gas Separators, 8th Edition:
Mesh pads K S and performance parameters [3, 5, 8] Notes: Note for each droplet size a range of K S —values are given for a specified pressure. Once the maximum gas velocity, V Gmaxthrough the vessel is determined by Equation 2, one can calculate the minimum vessel diameter, D min by Equation 3.
The vane-pack manufacturer 20008 be contacted for specific information.
Figure 4 shows the location and function of a typical mist extractor in a vertical separator. Assume vane-pack K S — value decline with pressure as shown in Table 5. As presented in the Appendix, substitution 200 expressions for the drag and 22008 forces in Equation 1, the maximum allowable gas velocity, V Gmaxwhich prevents entrainment of liquid is obtained.
For vertical separators with no mist extractor devices, Chap 11, Vol 2 of the Gas Conditioning and Processing book presents K S as a function of pressure and liquid droplet size . PetroSkills offers consulting expertise on this subject and many others. Subscription – always available and updated A web subscription provides an easy and secure access to standards, and you are guaranteed to always have the latest edition.
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168710339 API 12J Spec for Oil and Gas Separators
In the December tip of the month TOTM , we discussed troubleshooting of gas-liquid separators for removal of liquids from the gas stream leaving the separator. These values are presented in Table 1.
Mesh pad K S deration factors as a function of pressure . Most importantly — mist extractor type and design e. The mist extractor is the final gas cleaning device in a conventional separator. Knowing the actual gas flow rate through the vessel, one can use K S parameter to determine the maximum allowable gas velocity through the vessel and determine the required separator diameter.
The drag force, F Dis exerted by flow of gas and gravity force, F Gis exerted by the weight of droplet. Mist extractor manufacturer’s recommended minimum distances upstream and downstream of the wire mesh between gas inlet and outlet nozzles should be provided for full utilization of the mist extractor.
The horizontal separator sizing is a trial-and-error procedure. The 12 separation mechanism is liquid impingement onto the wires, followed by coalescence into droplets large enough to disengage from the mesh 12jj. Separators outside the scope of this specification include centrifugal separators, filter separators and desanding separators.
The Souders-Brown method is limited in that it is based on the average droplet size, but cannot quantify 122j amount of liquid droplets exiting the gas gravity section.
There are two methods for sizing gas-liquid separators: References  provide mesh pad examples. For detail of calculations procedure refer to chapter 11 of reference . The K s method, Equation 2, is an empirical approach to estimate the maximum allowable gas velocity to achieve a desired droplet separation. The performance of a gas-liquid separator is highly dependent on the value of K S ; therefore, aoi choice of appropriate K S —values is important.
The effective length and actual lengths are calculated by Equation 5.