ASTM. D. D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics. 1. Scope. This guide covers procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles and.

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This is somewhat consistent with a recent report on cotton water sorption based on sorption isotherms of cotton by Yakumin et al. The Kett measures moisture weight loss after drying under a large infrared heat lamp which, minimizes scorching. The hydroentangling line was flushed and cleaned after each fabric production trial. Prior to KFT testing cotton samples, blank vials were used for quality control measures.

Experimental materials and methods A commercially available bale of precleaned greige cotton was acquired from T. This standard is also available to be atm in Standards Subscriptions. One method [ 15 ] is simple, portable, easy to use, and involves an infrared lamp to dry the samples.

However, cellulose crystallite size varied.

D117 studies will focus on specific functional applications for incontinence hygiene and wound care nonwovens. Depending on the end-use application, a hydroentangled nonwoven fabric made by using a blend of cotton mote fibers and greige bleach-less cleaned cotton lint gave optimal swelling and reasonably good moisture uptake.

Also, note that the KFT water content Table 3 for polyester is 0.

Standard – Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics (Withdrawn ) ASTM D –

A quantity of cotton gin mote fibers was also obtained from T. Highly cleaned greige cotton fiber retains most of satm natural, native protective membrane or surface coating of waxes and pectin native to the greige cotton fiber. The nonwoven hydroentanglement of greige cotton lint with cotton gin motes and comber noils blends was analyzed for fiber surface polarity, swelling, and absorbance to assess properties with potential usefulness in absorbent nonwovens.

These test methods cover procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. December 9th DOI: In recent years, the preference to use cotton fibers in nonwoven absorbent products has increased.

The Segal Crystallinity Index values arise almost completely from the overlap of the wide observed peaks It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


The modification involved using an infrared lamp to dry the materials rather than a laboratory oven as called for in the standard methods. However, limited use of cotton gin motes is made in traditional textiles made with spun yarns.

ASTM D 1117

On the other hand, the crystallite size of cellulose in the gin motes and comber noils was larger than cellulose crystallites in greige cotton linters. The modification was a short increase in the a -axis of the unit cell to 7. Griege raw cotton gin motes are just d1117 of several by-products viz. In addition, the asfm of the isoelectric points IEPs among the UltraClean cotton samples is consistent with the composition of the samples being cellulosic [ 13 ].

The ATSM method uses a sample of fabric that is 76 mm wide and cut to a length that equals 5.

The Scherrer formula was used to convert the peak width at half maximum pwhm to crystallite sizes perpendicular to the large peak with a shape constant of 1. This sample is provided for information and not comparison due to its higher density.

ASTM D – Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics

Add to Alert PDF. There is little data on the presence of waxes and pectin in comber noils and gin motes, so a relative comparison of cotton cuticle contributions is not possible. The test methods used in the study are as follows: However, the potential to use greige nonbleached cotton in nonwoven awtm products has received increased attention based on innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwovens processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorption [ 1 – 3 ].

Thus, the increased swelling due to increasing the ratio of UC may be a result of an additive contribution of waxes from the greige cotton, which are expected to contribute hydrophobicity to the fiber surface analogous to more hydrophobic fibers like polyester. More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications.

Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics (Withdrawn 2009)

The water from the cotton sample from the vial is released and driven into the titration cell from which the percentage of moisture present is calculated from the volume of reagent consumed. Dd1117 two properties moisture uptake and swelling promote fluid transport. This study demonstrates the versatility of nonwoven greige cotton when combined with cotton by-products as putative economical substitutes for synthetic fibers in absorbent applications.


The basket is dropped from a height of 25 mm into a water bath, and the time it takes the sample and basket to sink is measured as sink time. As the voice of the U. Measurement of fabric polarity, charge, relative composition, swelling, and porosity Streaming zeta potential experiments are carried out with an electrokinetic analyzer, which is manufactured in Ashland VA, USA, using the cylindrical cell developed for the measurement of fibrous samples.

It is important to note that bleached cotton also was found to have larger crystallite size, but the much higher density of the sample tested excludes it from comparison with the other samples.

The basket is removed and allowed to drain for 10 s, and the sample is weighed to determine its water content. In addition, the small range of KFT values of the cellulosic blends is due to the specificity of KFT to water compared to the weight loss as measured with the Kett infrared heating method.


In combination with surface-exposed cellulose from nonwoven hydroentanglement process conditions, unique fiber properties are retained when compared to d117 and bleached cotton. This model is contrasted with experimental models, including one based on TEM images of a water swollen cotton fiber to image water-accessible surfaces. Swell test, k min Your Alert Profile lists the documents that will be monitored.

August 24th Published: The water content in the blank vial was 0.

Absorbency characteristics of the various hydroentangled fabrics. Moisture determinations The water content results via Karl Fischer titration KFTfollowing ASTMtrack the moisture results based on the Kett moisture determination balance that utilizes an infrared lamp Table 3.

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