ASTM D Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method). ASTM D – Heat of Combustion. Significance and Use. The heat of combustion is a measure of the energy available from a fuel. A knowledge of this . Buy ASTM D TEST METHOD FOR HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS BY BOMB CALORIMETER.
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This test method covers the determination of the heat of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. It is designed specifically for use with aviation turbine fuels when the permissible difference between duplicate determinations is of the order of 0. It can be used for a wide range of volatile and nonvolatile materials where slightly greater differences in precision can be tolerated. In order to attain this precision, strict adherence to all details of the procedure is essential since the error contributed by each individual measurement that affects the precision shall be kept below 0.
Aatm normal conditions, the test method is directly applicable to such fuels as gasoline, kerosene, Nos. Through the improvement of the calorimeter controls and temperature measurements, the precision is improved over that of Test Method D The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use.
It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Gross Heat of Combustion – expressed as d480 joules per kilogram. Gross heat of combustion is represented by the symbol Qg3. Net Heat of Combustion – expressed as mega joules per kilogram. The net heat of combustion at constant pressure of a liquid or solid fuel containing only the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur is the quantity of heat liberated when a unit mass of the fuel is burned in oxygen at a constant pressure of 0.
Time is expressed in minutes and decimal fractions thereof. It can be measured in minutes or seconds, or both.
Masses atm measured in grams. No buoyancy corrections are applied except to obtain the mass of benzoic acid. The energy unit of measurement employed in this test method is the joule with the heat v4809 combustion reported in mega joules per kilogram. The heat of combustion is determined by burning a weighed samples in an oxygen-bomb calorimeter under controlled conditions.
The temperature increase is measured by a temperature reading instrument which allows the precision of the test method to be met. The heat of combustion is calculated from temperature observations before, during, and after combustion, with proper allowance for thermo-chemical and heat-transfer corrections.
Either isoperibol or adiabatic calorimeters may be used. The heat of combustion is a measure of the energy available from a fuel.
A knowledge of this value is essential when considering the thermal efficiency of equipment for producing either power or heat. The mass heat of combustion, that is, the heat of combustion per unit mass of adtm, is measured c4809 the procedure. Its magnitude is particularly important to weight-limited vehicles such as airplanes, surface effect vehicles, and hydrofoils as the disturbance such craft can travel on a given weight of fuel is a direct function of the fuel’s mass heat of combustion and its density.
The volumetric heat of combustion, that is, the heat of combustion per unit volume of fuel, can be calculated by multiplying the mass heat of combustion by the density of the fuel mass per unit volume. The volumetric heat of combustion, rather than the mass heat v4809 combustion, is important to volume-limited craft such as automobiles and ships, as it is directly related to the distance traveled between refueling. Purity of Reagents – Reagent grade chemical shall be used in all tests.
Unless otherwise indicated, it is intended that all reagents shall conform to the specifications of the Committee on Analytical Reagents of the American Chemical Society, where such specifications are available. Other grades may be used, provided it is first ascertained that the reagent is of sufficiently high purity to permit its use without lessening the accuracy of the determination. Purity of Water – Unless otherwise indicated, references to water shall be understood to mean reagent water conforming to Specification D, D409 IV or better.
Benzoic Acid – The acid must be pelleted before use. Firing Wire – 0. Oxygen – Commercial oxygen produced from liquid air can be used without purification Warning – Oxygen vigorously accelerates combustion.
Oxygen prepared by electrolysis of water cannot be used without purification as it can contain some hydrogen. Combustible impurities may be removed by passage over copper oxide at C. Pressure-Sensitive Tape – Cellophane tape 38mm wide, free of chlorine and sulfur. Sodium Hydroxide Solution 0. Can cause severe burns or blindness. Evolution of heat produces a violent reaction or eruption upon too rapid mixture with water.
Standardize with potassium acid phthalate and adjust to 0. Vapors may cause flash fire. Arrangement of Apparatus – Install the thermometers as recommended by the manufacturer of the calorimeter. Position the liquid-in-glass thermometer so that the bulb is halfway to the bottom of the bucket and locate the thermistor with its sensing element at about the midpoint of the thermometer bulb.
Mount these elements so that qstm the same length is immersed each time the calorimeter is used. Install a thermistor in the water jacket with the elements immersed to the same depth as in the bucket.
Standard Test Methods Compliance
It is helpful, but not necessary to have liquid-in-glass calorimetric thermometers in both the bucket and jacket for quick temperature observations.
Thermistors can be taped to these thermometers. If the thermistors are taped to the thermometers, it can be done in such a manner that the sensing elements are at the midpoint of the thermometer bulbs.
The thermometer bulbs and temperature-sensing elements shall not touch the bomb, bucket, or water jacket. Calorimeter Jacket Controller and Auxiliary Equipment – Adjust the jacket controller, valves, heater, astn. Test Room – The room in which the calorimeter is opened must be free from drafts and not aastm to sudden temperature changes. The temperature must be constant, not only throughout the day, but from one time of the year to another.
The direct rays of the sun shall not strike the calorimeter jacket, bridge, and galvanometer. Adequate facilities for lighting, heating, and ventilation should be provided. Thermostatic control of room temperature and controlled humidity are desirable. Atsm parts shall be constructed of materials that are not affected by the combustion process or products sufficient to introduce measurable heat input or alteration of end products.
If the bomb is lined with platinum or gold, all openings shall be sealed to prevent combustion products from reaching the base metal. The bomb must be designed so that all liquid combustion products can be completely recovered by washing the inner surfaces. There must be no gas leakage during a test.
The bomb must be capable of withstanding a hydrostatic pressure test to a gauge pressure of If necessary, modify the bomb such that asm feet are 12mm high to allow for better water circulation under the bomb.
Calorimeter Bucket – The calorimeter bucket shall be made of metal preferably copper or brass with a tarnish-resistant coating, and with all outer surfaces highly polished. Its size shall be such that the bomb will be completely immersed in water when the calorimeter is assembled.
It shall have a device for stirring the water thoroughly and at a uniform rate but with minimum heat input. Continuous stirring for 10 min shall not raise the temperature more than 0.
The immersed portion of the stirrer shall be coupled to the outside through a material of low-heat conductivity. Jacket – The calorimeter bomb, bucket, and water shall be completely enclosed within a stirred water jacket and supported so that its sides, top, and aatm are approximately 1cm from the jacket walls.
The jacket may be arranged so as to remain at a constant temperature, or with provisions for automatically adjusting the jacket temperature to equal that of the calorimeter bomb, bucket, and water for adiabatic operation.
It must be constructed so that any water evaporating from the jacket will not condense on the calorimeter bucket. Thermometers – Temperature in the jacket and the calorimeter, respectively, shall be measured with the following thermometers: Each of these thermometers shall have been tested for accuracy at intervals no larger than 1.
Corrections shall be calculated to 0. Temperature in the calorimeter shall be measured with the following thermometers: Platinum resistance, thermistor, or other temperature measuring devices which when used with its associated instrumentation will measure the temperature rise repeatably with a recorded resolution of 0. Automatic Calorimeter Microprocessor Controller – in place of manually recording temperature and calculating the energy equivalent, an automatic controller may be used.
It shall be capable of storing calorimeter temperature readings taken at accurate intervals, firing the bomb and ending the experiment. The stored information along with the sample mass, nitric acid correction and sulfur content, when entered into the instrument, shall be used to calculate the desired energy equivalent or heat of combustion.
Firing Circuit – A 6 to 16V alternating current is required for ignition purposes with an ammeter or pilot light in the circuit to indicate when current is flowing. A step-down transformer connected to a V. Timing Device – a watch or other timing device capable of measuring time to 1s is required for use with the isoperibol method.
Sample Cup – A low-form platinum cup, 26mm in diameter and 11mm deep with a spun rim. Base metal alloy crucibles are acceptable if after a few preliminary firings and weight does not change significantly between tests.
ASTM D – Heat of Combustion – Clark Testing
Energy Equivalent of the Calorimeter – Benzoic Acid shall be used as the primary standard Warning – Oxygen vigorously accelerates combustion. Choose a sample mass so that the temperature rise is approximately equivalent to an energy change of 30,J. Initially determine the energy awtm by averaging six determinations made using benzoic acid over a period of at least 3 days.
A relative standard deviation RSD of 0. If not, continue to run until six determinations establish a value that ast a RSD of 0.
If this degree of precision cannot be achieved, review the procedure, critical measurement, mechanical operations and everything that may contribute to scatter in the results. After establishing an energy equivalent value, determine the value at frequent intervals using benzoic acid every 1 or 2 days of testing with the average of the last six determinations being used for the energy equivalent as long as the last six determinations have a RSD of 0.
Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and site URL in my browser for next time I post a comment. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Temperatures are measured in degrees Celsius C. Semi-micro Analytical Balance, having a sensitivity of 0. Heavy-Duty Analytical Balance, having a sensitivity of 0.