Cisco SS7 Fundamentals. Preface. Objectives. This document describes the concepts and functions of Signaling System Number 7 (SS7). SS7 is. Example of SS7 protocol (ISUP) and related attacks. ▫ SS7 and IP: the SIGTRAN evolution and problems . CISCO SS7 fundamentals, CISCO press. Malaysia Airlines – Confirmation RedirectResult Confirmation CONGRATULATIONS! Your booking.
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Signal findamentals are continuously transmitted in both directions on any link that is in service. SS7 uses three different types of icsco units: Field types include the following: All signal units begin with a distinct 8-bit pattern Although the protocol allows an opening and closing flag, only one flag is used in North America.
It is recalculated by the receiving signaling point, and if corrupted, a retransmission is requested. Checks the integrity of the signal unit and discriminates between different types of signal units. The default values are: These fields also provide flow control.
That sequence number is placed in the FSN field of the outgoing signal unit, which is stored by the transmitting signaling point until fundamentxls is acknowledged by the receiving signaling point.
Signaling points acknowledge receipt of SUs by putting the sequence number of the last correctly received and in sequence SU in the backward sequence number BSN of every SU they transmit. SU Error Detection The check bit field and the sequence number of the signal unit are used to detect errors. Seven-bit sequence numbering is used. The forward sequence number FSN is incremented by one after every transmission. The backward sequence number BSN is used to acknowledge received signal units.
The transmitting signal point keeps all transmitted signal units in a buffer until acknowledged.
SS7 Signal Units
Once the BSN is received, all ss7 signal units are dropped from the buffer. Unacknowledged signal units stay in the buffer until a timer expires, causing a link failure indication to be sent to Level 3. The link is then tested and aligned. All signaling associated with call setup and teardown, database query and response, and SS7 management requires the use of MSUs.
The SIF transfers control information and routing label. The SIO is an 8-bit field that contains three types of information: Refer to Table Not used to control the order of transmittal, but used when network is congested to determine if a message can be discarded.
Value is from 0—3, with 3 the highest priority.
The SIF transfers control information and the routing label used by Level 3. This information is contained in the status field of the signal unit.
They signal the initiation of link alignment, quality of received traffic, and status of processors at either end of the link. LSSUs do not require any addressing information because they are only sent between signaling points. FISUs support the monitoring of link traffic because they undergo error checking.
Cisco SS7 Fundamentals
They can also be used to acknowledge the receipt of messages using backward sequence number BSN and backward indicator bit BIB. The link is considered in error if the signal unit is not in 8-bit multiples or if the SIF exceeds the maximum octet capacity. Each link keeps its own unique counter. When more than 64 errors occur, the link is taken out of service, tested, and realigned by Level 3.
Name the three types of signal units. Name the four common fields found in all signal units. What is a sequence number? In what field is it contained? How do SS7 signaling points acknowledge the receipt of signal units? Describe the functions that can be performed by an MSU.
Where is the routing label found? Do LSSUs need addressing information? What is the function of a flag field? What happens when a signal unit is not acknowledged?
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