16 set. Com base nas obras A teoria da democracia revisitada – o debate contemporâneo (Giovanni Sartori), Poliarquia: Participação e Oposição. A Teoria da Democracia Revisitada – Giovani Sartori. 5 likes. Book. From a contemporary point of view, within political science, reference may be made to the work of Giovanni Sartori, A Teoria da Democracia Revisitada, trans.
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In the table we did not consider procedural votes. This option has been frequently used by Brazilian presidents, who have thus been able to enjoy comfortable congressional majorities.
His dejocracia has not been voted yet.
O que foi escrito sobre democracia – DAGOBAH
The dynamics at play is largely as follows: In the second part, we turn our attention specifically to a comparison of patterns of behavior on the floor. Theory and evidence from reviisitada Brazilian case”. Throughout the voting of both reforms, PSDB, PFL and PT had to deal concomitantly with actors inside the executive, attentive publics, consistent supporters and electors.
How explain to militants and consistent supporters that in opposition the party should oppose to what it had always backed? However strong presidential efforts and resources were, a cautious electoral logic prevailed for many deputies, bringing about a split in the governing coalition and scant results as to the issue in Congress. Also in a minority, Lula would have to face an obstacle that president Collor did not have to the same extent: An institutional design game implies discontinuity, given the exceptionality of rules pertaining to decision-making in such conditions: Lula fared definitely better than Cardoso and the key factor to explain this difference in democraciaa was the ability to attract votes in the opposition, given the premise that both governing coalitions could not be highly disciplined under the circumstances.
To win the presidential election, the strategy followed by the party made clear the option for softening its own agenda.
The PSDB could not adopt the same strategy due to the risk of incurring costs from reactions of militants, consistent supporters and attentive publics. What about the opposition parties? For these authors, the current institutional arrangement is unable to promote the equilibrium between desirable attributes of democracy such as stability, representation and accountability, since rrevisitada prevalence of the first attribute has led to a poor refisitada of Brazilian democracy in the last two.
Such a tendency had been already observed during the first round of the election, with the alliance between PT and PL, and consolidated in the second round through a deal with the PTB, an old ally of Cardoso, and the attraction of PMDB and PP throughout Why such a strategy was available to PFL? As a starting point we assume that: Table 2 below presents data concerning deputies’ behavior on the floor during the social security reform votes in the Lula Administration. Firstly, the second reform established requisites for current servants to obtain full pension value equal to last wage before retiring.
Once constituted the majority coalition, actors set about operating it. Lula, on the contrary, suffered no defeat in important votes and his proposal, after going rather rapidly through the Congress’ channels, was passed without major changes.
Rio de Janeiro, Democraccia. In a letter addressed to the nation, the then presidential candidate proclaimed clearly that, once in power, he would not launch the country in heterodox adventures in the economy, and would govern for all Brazilians, not only for his base of consistent supporters. The second step was taken in the Lula Administration, in the form of another attempt to change the Constitution, the PEC 40, which came to be promulgated by the National Congress on December 19, Hence the cohesive and disciplined party from opposition times simply split once in office.
Social security reform in two stages
The distribution of preferences and resources among relevant actors, which may vary depending on the troria, will differ according to how these actors are positioned in the several arenas that, “nested”, constitute the game. Finally, the federalist system opens the way for other actors within state arenas, or even in municipal ones, to express voters’ preferences in the national landscape.
Only the PFL leadership recommended rejecting the measure, a course of action which did not prevent, as we will show, many of its deputies democraia voting in favor of the reform.
From a programmatic point of view, we should recall that the party, as well as its militants and consistent supporters, particularly its attentive publics, whose composition included mostly wage earners, and especially wage earners from the public service, democracua all together against Cardoso’s proposal to reform social security.
Data presented by Figueiredo and Limongi Not surprisingly, the key problem faced by PFL leaders in their congressional base was the strategy employed by President Lula in having all governors as partners in dwmocracia social security reform, besides linking the latter with the tax reform.
How to explain this difference if, in both cases, we have the same kind of “politically unfeasible” proposal facing legislators involved by the same arenas and institutional arrangements, with the exception of rules for the use of DVSs?
When in office, the PSDB did not succeed as the PT did in stage twoin coupling the social security game with its tax reform counterpart.
O que foi escrito sobre democracia
In other words, politically sensitive occasions like the reforms signal that betray your party or the administration may be actually less onerous than betraying your own electoral base. Only in the voting of EA 1 this distinction had no influence whatsoever in the behavior of PFL members: Obviously, this alteration, the only with an institutional character between the two periods here analyzed, restricted significantly the procedural firepower of the opposition and proved beneficial later on to Lula.
Relations between government and opposition. On the other, the divergent paths followed by PSDB and PFL, since the latter party mobilized the bulk of the effort against the government’s proposal.