Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.
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The latter course seems more suitable as a means of ending the doubt which arises in the soul from this [class of text]. One class is those who are not people of interpretation at all: For this to happen, opinions must be divergent in the extreme, i.
Refine Your Search Year. Indeed this comparison is certain, not poetic as one might suppose. The [full] solution of this difficulty would call for a lengthy discourse; but here we shall only go into the decisive point of the solution.
And the should accept from them gladly and gratefully whatever in these books accords with the truth, and draw attention to and warn against what does not accord with the truth, at the same time excusing them.
So the objector fals believe the same about the study of intellectual reasoning. If, when beings come to exist after not having existed, there occurred an addition in the eternal Knowledge such as occurs in originated knowledge, it would follow that the eternal Knowledge would be an effect of beings, not their cause. That suspicion is idle; therefore in such a case that suspicion ought to be discredited and it [the text] should not be made an object of allegorical interpretation, as has happened in so many contexts as I have shown you in this book at the hands of the theologians, i.
It seems that those who disagree on the interpretation of these difficult questions earn merit if they are in the right and will be excused [by God] if they are in error. But when those who came after them used allegorical interpretation, their fear of God grew less, their dissensions increased, their love for one another was removed, and they became divided into sects.
This [divergence of opinions] is due to the difficulty and ambiguity of this class of text. In memory of my father. To how many lawyers has law been a cause of aal-maqal of piety and immersion in this world! For it can be said to them: A nn A rbor. Luzac for the Trustees of ‘The E. By doing this Ghazali caused confusion among the people. In sum, it can hardly be conceived that the knowledge of a thing before it exists can be identical with the knowledge of it after it exists. Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new al-maql existing list; or delete some items.
However, when al-maqzl interpretations of these two classes [of texts] [iii and iv] are declared openly, they give birth to strange beliefs, remote from the apparent meaning of Scripture; and sometimes these become widespread, until they are denied by the masses. Thus it is not strange if the same thing that occurs accidentally in the art which calls for practical virtue should occur accidentally in the art which calls for intellectual virtue.
Formats and Editions of Kitāb fasl al-maqāl 
This is what happened to the Sufis and to those scholars who followed this path: Then how can he do it with the art of arts, philosophy? It is our desire to have the chance to fulfill this aim with regard to all the statements of Scripture: If this is so, and knowledge is the relation itself, it must necessarily change when the object known changes, just as, when the column changes [its position]the relation of the column to Zayd changes, coming to be a left-handed relation after having been a right-handed one.
Moreover, this is a situation that is self-evident not in the scientific arts alone but also in the practical arts; for there is not one of them which a single man can construct by himself.
They agree also about naming the extremes; but they disagree about the intermediate class. Thus it is wrong to forbid the study of ancient philosophy.
al-maqao How can God be aware of a change in reality without a corresponding change occurring in His eternal Knowledge? For the relation has changed in itself: From this it is evident that the study of the books of the ancients is obligatory by Law, since their aim and purpose in their books is just the purpose to which the Law has urged us, and that whoever forbids the study of them to anyone who is fit to study them, i.
It is also possible to release the allegorical interpretation to them, because of the strong resemblance between the thing mentioned and what it symbolizes. That al-maqap the case, it is not possible for general unanimity 92 to be established about allegorical interpretations, which God has made peculiar to scholars.
Now some of the methods of assent comprehend the majority of people, i. For this manner of harm which arises owing to them is something that is attached to them by accident, not by essence; and when a thing is beneficial by its nature and essence, it ought not to be shunned because of something harmful contained in it by accident. Indeed, they consider that His knowledge is the cause of their coming into existence, also that It sends premonitions of particulars in dreams.
The Arabic article is omitted in front of single names, e.
In memory of my father
In addition to all this we hold that Abu Hamid was mistaken about the Peripatetic philosophers, in ascribing to them the assertion that God, Holy and Exalted, does not know particulars at all.
Cancel Forgot your password? Here again we must be circumspect in giving allegorical interpretations, i. Ch a pter I. He kitwb the Penetrating, the Omniscient! This is the furthest extent to which purification [of concepts] ought to be admitted. Another group holds that there is a difference in the kind of existence.
For if we suppose that the art of geometry did not exist in this age of ours, and likewise the art of astronomy, and a single person wanted to ascertain by himself the sizes of the heavenly bodies, their shapes, and their distances from each other, that would not be possible for him, e. The imams of the Muslims ought to forbid those of his books which contain learned matter to all save the learned, just as they ought to forbid demonstrative books to those who are not capable of understanding them.
I AM grateful to the International Commission for the Translation of Great Works and the Trustees of the Gibb Memorial Fund for sponsoring the publication of this book, and to the Graduate School of the University of Michigan for financial assistance towards research. So whoever wishes to remove this heresy from religion should direct his attention to the precious Book, and glean from it the indications present [in kita concerning everything in turn that it obliges us to believe, arid exercise his judgment in looking at its apparent meaning as well as he is able, without interpreting any of it allegorically, except where the allegorical meaning is apparent in itself, i.
This difficulty is confirmed by what appears in the case of man: We have devoted a separate essay to this question, impelled by one of our friends. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: